Last week, I delivered a presentation on managing ERP implementation projects as part of a day-long conference hosted by i-app – a reseller and integrator of Infor’s Infor10 ERP Enterprise (LN) software (the newly renamed ERP LN and present-day iteration of Baan).
The title of my presentation – “Enterprise Software Project Management: A Fresh Approach” – is facetious, a bit tongue-in-cheek. My argument that a “fresh approach” is needed has nothing to do with new tools nor with revolutionary approaches to ERP project management. In fact, I ultimately argue that organizations should rely on a methodology like ours – one that’s been battle-tested and proven successful over a period of decades.
I say that a “fresh approach” is needed because most companies continue to take a flawed approach to ERP implementation project management. It’s this flawed approach that leads to an industry-wide ERP implementation failure rate of 68% (source: Standish Group 2009 CHAOS report) and a catastrophic failure rate of 17% (source: Harvard Business Review, 2011). And, if you’re wondering what makes 1-in-6 projects a catastrophic failure, try an average cost overrun of $170 million and an average schedule overrun of 70%.
Milestone Deliverables is based on the premise that people (and teams) are most effective when they work towards small, achievable, actionable and measurable goals. Our methodology does just that. It breaks down a complex ERP implementation project into 13 distinct phases using 14 actionable deliverables.
Each deliverable is associated with tangible measures of success; including those related to cost, schedule and performance. These metrics act as signposts – or milestones – along the route to go-live. Project teams are required to stop and reflect at each of these milestone. This way, they can see whether they’re on the path to success. And, in the event that they’ve deviated, they’re in a position to take immediate, corrective action to get themselves back on track.
In this post, I focus on three phases of an ERP project: project planning, business process mapping and systems testing. For a project to be successful, each these phases has to be effectively managed. Poor management of any one of them is likely to send the project to its grave.
In many ways, a project plan should act as a GPS navigator for the implementation project. It should lay out a clearly marked roadmap – turn-by-turn – to a successful outcome.
ERP implementation success will ultimately be judged relative to cost, schedule and performance. It therefore becomes critical that each of the project’s component phases contain corresponding milestones.
Our clients – and other companies that implement using Milestone Deliverables – break down their ERP project plans into the five following components.
|Project Charter||Defining performance success partly depends on the business value that the organization is trying to achieve. The project charter crystallizes the business rationales that drive the project.|
|Scope Statement||The scope statement defines the project’s boundaries and is derived from the charter. It should contain two components:
|Target Budget and Schedule||Each of the project phases – and milestone deliverables – should be allocated a specific completion date and cost.|
|Organizational Structure and Staff Requirements||A formal reporting structure defines key communications lines, authorities and responsibilities. This helps prevent the “black hole of accountability” syndrome that can lead to unmanaged show-stopping issues, finger-pointing and lawsuits.|
|Subsidiary Plans||These are, in effect, mini project plans for various sub-components. Each subproject should be broken down into specific tasks, MSFs, budgets and schedules. Examples of subsidiary plans include: IT infrastructure plan, risk management plan, resource management plan, scope management plan, and communications plan.|
Business Process Mapping
In my article Without Restructuring, ERP Implementation is an Expensive Waste, I make the argument that ERP software can’t make your organization significantly better unless there’s a corresponding commitment to operational improvement.
Given the inextricable link between operations and ERP, it’s absolutely critical that the future state of an organization’s operations be designed alongside the software. This exercise of defining how the business and systems will process transactions is called business process mapping. These mappings show the work tasks – performed by people, systems and machines – that are required to push a transaction through the organization.
The following four deliverables collectively comprise the Milestone Deliverables process mapping phase:
|Business Scenarios List||This is the central organizing tool. It should be used to catalog each and every business process, intended handling method, related reference documents and status. To learn more about the Business Scenario list, read this article: The Business Scenario List – Seven Steps to an Organized Mapping Phase.|
|Blueprint Whitepapers||These documents contain the draft blueprints for the future business processes. Each blueprint whitepaper should accomplish two goals:
To learn more about blueprint whitepapers, read this article: Draft Your Blueprint Whitepapers with this Seven-Part Structure.
|Gaps and Issues Database: Risk Management||This is the go-to database to track, prioritize and manage all ongoing project issues in a productive manner. Each issue is defined, assigned, prioritized, scheduled and tracked. To learn more about the gaps and issues database read this article: Five Steps to Slaying the Three-Headed Gaps and Issues Beast.|
|Change Management Plan||At the core, business process mapping is about change. For these changes to be successful, people need to adapt to the new ways of doing business. The change management plan provides a methodological process to implement the changes, and includes: gap analysis, job assignment, H.R. alignment, communications, training and budget. To learn more about the change management plan, read this article: Change Management Plan | Six-Stage Surgical Approach.|
Back in 1999, Hershey’s was implementing a trio of enterprise software systems: SAP, Manugistics and Seibel. It had decided to fasttrack its implementation to get the systems up-and-running in time for the busy Halloween season. So, Hershey’s cut corners on its system testing to meet its aggressive deadlines.
What’s the worst that could have happened, right? How about an inability to ship $100 million worth of inventory, a 19% drop in quarterly earnings and an 8% drop in stock price. (You can learn more about the Hershey’s ERP failure in our case study: Hershey’s ERP Implementation Failure: The Importance of Testing and Scheduling).
When it comes to testing, our recommendation is that organizations shouldn’t skimp. They’re better off learning that things are broken in a test environment rather than in a productive environment. The risk is simply not worth taking. Using Milestone Deliverables, we break down system testing into three distinct phases, as follows.
|Conference Room Pilot (CRP)||In the CRP testing phase, the goal is to make sure that the ERP software can handle the most probable business scenarios (i.e. the 80% scenarios) for each and every functional department (click here for a discussion of 80% and 20% scenarios). The core team members participate in the CRP, and this represents an important element of their training. Learn about the six key tasks that must be completed in a CRP by reading this article: ERP System Testing #1 | The Conference Room Pilot|
|Departmental Pilot (DP)||In the DP phase, all of the organization’s business processes should be tested – both the 80% and 20% scenarios. This testing phase should accomplish four main purposes:
To learn more about the DP testing phase, read this article: ERP System Testing #2: Departmental Pilot Stress-Testing.
|Integrated Pilot (IP)||In the IP testing phase, the testing is focused on the validity of the tie-ins – i.e. whether the system is capable of handing-off a transaction from one functional area to another. The key to effective integrated testing is to create a realistic day-in-the-life test environment using a wide set of actual legacy transactions. To learn more about this testing phase, read our article: ERP System Testing #3 | Integrated Pilot Simulation.|
In Part 2 of the Introduction to Managing ERP Implementations Using Milestone Deliverables, I’ll cover the following three components that are also critical to ERP project success: a project’s organizational structure, training and data migration.
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